Abu Musa al-Ashari - The Prophet Muhammad (2023)

When he went to Basrah as governor of the city, he called the inhabitants to a meeting and addressed them: "The Amir al-Muminin, Umar, has sent me to you to teach you the Book of your Lord and the Sunnah of His Prophet and to clean your streets for you."

People were taken aback when they heard these words. They could easily understand that one of the responsibilities of a Muslim ruler was to instruct people in their religion. However, that one of his duties should be to clean streets was something new and surprising to them.

Who was this governor of whom the Prophet's grandson, al-Hasan, may God be pleased with him said: "There was no rider who came to Basrah who was better for its people than he."

His real name was Abdullah ibn Qays but he was and continues to be known as Abu Musa al-Ashari. He left his native land, the Yemen, for Makkah immediately after hearing that a Prophet had appeared there who was a man of rare insight, who called people to the worship of One God and who insisted on the highest standards of morality.

At Makkah, he stayed in the company of the Prophet and gained knowledge and guidance. He returned to his country to propagate the word of God and spread the mission of the noble Prophet, peace be on him. We have no further news of him for more than a decade. Then just after the end of the Khaybar expedition he came to the Prophet in Madinah. His arrival there coincided with that of Jaffar ibn Abi Talib and other Muslims from Abyssinia and the Prophet welcomed them all with joy and happiness.

This time Abu Musa did not come alone. He came with more than fifty persons from the Yemen all of whom had accepted Islam. Among them were his two brothers, Abu Ruhm and Abu Burdah. The Prophet referred to the whole group as the "Asharis". In fact he sometimes referred to all Yemenis as Asharis after Abu Musa al-Ashari. He often praised the group for their soft and tender-hearted nature and held them up to the rest of his companions as a high example of good behavior. He once said of them:

"If the Asharis go on an expedition or if they only have a little food among them, they would gather all they have on one cloth and divide it equally among themselves. They are thus from me and I am from them."

Abu Musa soon became highly esteemed in the Muslim community. He had many great qualities. He was a faqih endowed with intelligence and sound judgement and was ranked as one of the leading judges in the early Muslim community. People used to say: "The judges in this ummah are four: Umar, Ali, Abu Musa and Zayd ibn Thabit."

Abu Musa had a natural, uncomplicated disposition. He was by nature a trusting person and expected people to deal with him on the basis of trust and sincerity.

(Video) Ep 11 | Who is Abu Hurairah & Abu Musa Al Ash'ari RA? Getting To Know The Companions - Mufti Menk

In the field of jihad, he was a warrior of great courage and endurance and skill. The Prophet said of him: "The master of horsemen is Abu Musa."

"Abu Musa's insight and the soundness of his judgment did not allow him to be deceived by an enemy in battle. In battle conditions he saw situations with complete clarity and executed his actions with a firm resolve.

Abu Musa was in command of the Muslim army traversing the lands of the Sasanian Empire. At Isfahan, the people came to him and offered to pay the jizyah (in return for military protection) to make peace and avoid fighting. However, they were not sincere in their offer and merely wanted an opportunity to mount a treacherous attack on the Muslims. Abu Musa however saw through their real intentions and he remained on the alert. Thus when the Isfahanis launched their attack, the Muslim leader was not caught off-guard, He engaged them in battle and before midday of the following day, he had won a decisive victory.

In the major campaigns against the powerful Sasanian Empire Abu Musa's role was outstanding. In the great Battle of Tustar itself, he distinguished himself as a military commander.

The Persian commander, Hormuzan, had withdrawn his numerous forces to the strongly fortified city of Tustar. The Caliph Umar did not underestimate the strength of the enemy and he mobilized powerful and numerous force to confront Hormuzan. Among the Muslim forces were dedicated veterans like Ammar ibn Yasir, al-Baraa ibn Malik and his brother Anas, Majra'a al-Bakri and Salamah ibn Rajaa. Umar appointed Abu Musa as commander of the army.

So well fortified was Tustar that it was impossible to take it by storm. Several attempts were made to breach the walls but these proved unsuccessful. There followed a long and difficult siege which became even more testing and agonizing for the Muslims when, as we saw in the story of al-Baraa ibn Malik, the Persians began throwing down iron chains from the walls of the fortress at the ends of which were fastened red-hot iron hooks. Muslims were caught by these hooks and were pulled up either dead or in the agony of death.

Abu Musa realized that the increasingly unbearable impasse could only be broken by a resort to stratagem. Fortunately, at this time a Persian defected to the Muslim side and Abu Musa induced him to return behind the walls of the fortified city and use whatever artful means he could to open the city's gates from within. With the Persian he sent a special force of hand-picked men. They succeeded well in their task, opened the gates and made way for Abu Musa's army. Within hours the Persians were subdued.

In spite of the fact that Abu Musa was a strong and powerful warrior, he often left the battlefield transformed into a penitent, weeping person. At such times, he would read the Quran in a voice that profoundly stirred the souls of all who listened to him. Concerning his moving and melodious recitation of the Quran the Prophet, peace be on him, had said: "Abu Musa has indeed been given one of the flutes of the people of David."

Also, Umar, may god be pleased with him, often summoned Abu Musa and asked him to recite from the Book of God, saying: "Create in us a yearning for our Lord, O Abu Musa."

(Video) Companion was Beautiful Reciter of The Quran - Abu Musa al -Ashari (RA)

As a mark of his dedication to the Quran, Abu Musa was one of the few companions who had prepared a mushaf a written collection of the revelations.

Abu Musa only participated in fighting against the armies of Mushrikin, armies which tried to oppose the religion of God and extinguish the light of faith. When fighting broke out among Muslims, he fled from such conflict anti never look any part in it. Such was his stand in the conflict that arose between Ali and Muawiyah. It is in relation to this conflict and in particular his role as an adjudicator that the name of Abu Musa al-Ashari is most widely known.

Briefly, Abu Musa's position appeared to be that of a 'neutral.' He saw Muslims killing each other and felt that if the situation were to continue the very future of the Muslim ummah would be threatened. To start off with a clean slate, the Khalifah Ali should give up the position and Muawiyah should relinquish any claim to be Khalifah and the Muslims should be given a free choice to elect whoever they wanted as Khalifah.

It was of course true that Imam Ali held the position of Khalifah legitimately and that any unlawful revolt could only have as its object the challenging and overturning of the rule of law. However, developments had gone so far, the dispute had become so bloody and there seemed to be no end in sight except further bloodshed, that a new approach to a solution seemed the only hope of avoiding further bloodshed and continuous civil war.

When Imam Ali accepted the principle of arbitration, he wanted Abdullah ibn Abbas to represent him. But an influential section of his followers insisted on Abu Musa. Their reason for so doing was that Abu Musa had not taken part in the dispute from its beginning. Instead he had kept aloof from both parties when he despaired of bringing about an understanding and a reconciliation and putting an end to the fighting. Therefore, they felt, he was the most suitable person to be the arbitrator.

Imam Ali had no reason to doubt the devotion of Abu Musa to Islam and his truthfulness and sincerity. But he knew the shrewdness of the other side and their likely resort to ruses and treachery. He also knew that Abu Musa in spite of his understanding and his knowledge despised deceit and conspiracies and always wanted to deal with people on the basis of trust and honesty, not through cunning. Ali therefore feared that Abu Musa would be deceived by others and that arbitration would end up with the victory of guile over honesty and that the situation would end up being more perilous than it was.

Adjudication nonetheless began with Abu Musa representing the side of Ali and Amr ibn al-Aas representing the side of Muawiyah. A possible version of their historic conversation has been recorded in the book "Al-Akhbar at-Tiwal" by Abu Hanifah Ad-Daynawawi as follows:

Abu Musa: O Amr, what do you think of this suggestion in which there is the common good of the ummah and the pleasure of Allah?
Amr: What is it?
Abu Musa: Let us nominate Abdullah ibn Umar as Khalifah. He himself has not intervened at all in this war.
Amr: What do you think of Muawiyah for the position?
Abu Musa: It is neither opportune to have Muawiyah in this position nor does he deserve it.
Amr: Don't you know that Uthman was unjustly murdered?
Abu Musa: Certainly.
Amr: And that his status among the Quraysh you know (is one of honor), and that Muawiyah is the wali of the blood of Uthman.... And God says in the Quran: "Whoever is killed unjustly, We have given his heir authority...." (The full verse of the Quran is: Nor take life which God has made sacred except for a just cause. And if anyone is slain wrongfully, We have given his heir authority (to demand Qisas or to forgive). But let him not exceed bounds in the matter of taking life; for he is helped by the Law. Surah 17, verse 33 .) In addition to this he is the brother of Umm Habibah, the wife of the Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, and he is one of his companions.
Abu Musa: Fear God, O Amr.. Regarding what you have mentioned about the status of Muawiyah, if the position of the Khalifah is based on status, the person most deserving of it is "Abrahah ibn Sabbah". He is a descendant of Yemeni kings whose domain extended to the east and the west. And what status has Muawiyah in comparison with Ali ibn Abi Talib? Regarding your statement that Muawiyah is the wali of Uthman, the person who has the first right to this is his son, Amr ibn Uthman. However, if you agree with me, we could revert to the memory of Umar ibn al-Khattab and appoint his son Abdullah, the pious one.
Amr: What prevents you from appointing my son Abdullah he is virtuous, upright, one of those who were first to perform the Hijrah and who has been a long-standing companion of the Prophet.
Abu Musa: Your son is a man of honesty and truth. But you have plunged him deeply into these wars. Come let us appoint the Good One, the son of the Good One - Abdullah ibn Umar.
Amr: O Abu Musa! The only person who can set this matter aright is a man who has two wisdom teeth who eats with one and feeds with the other (referring to the political astuteness of Muawiyah).
Abu Musa: Woe to you, O Amr. The Muslims are depending on us to solve this matter. They have fought with swords and spears. Let us not return them to a state of fitnah.
Amr: What are you suggesting then?
Abu Musa: I suggest that we leave the two men-Ali and Muawiyah. Then we set up a shura among Muslims to let them choose from among themselves whoever they like.
Amr: I agree to this suggestion for indeed the common good of the people rests in it.

The above exchange shows Abu Musa to be a man of integrity and intelligence. He showed up the weakness of Amr's claims for Muawiyah to be the Caliph of the Muslims on the grounds of honor and status and on the grounds that he was the 'heir' to Uthman.

(Video) Abu Hurairah & Abu Musa Al-Ash'ari (ra) - Mufti Menk Malaysia Ramadan 2014

By his suggestion that the son of Umar ibn al-Khattab be appointed as Khalifah, Abu Musa showed that he was not prepared to stick uncompromisingly to the side he represented and that he was willing to consider an appropriate companion of the Prophet as an alternative, for the good of the Muslim community.

Amr finally agreed on Abu Musa's suggestion for a shura and for letting the Muslims decide freely whom they should have as Khalifah. It did not occur to Abu Musa that Amr would not honor the agreement they had come to and that he would resort to deceit.

Before the agreement was announced in public, Ibn Abbas warned Abu Musa saying: "I fear, by God, that Amr might deceive you. If you have both agreed on something, then let him announce it before you.."

Abu Musa, because of the gravity of the situation, felt that Amr would honor the agreement. On the following day, before the assembled Muslims, Abu Musa and Amr got together. Abu Musa is said to have invited Amr to speak first but he declined saying:

"I would not go before you for you are more honoured than I am, you performed the Hijrah before I did and you are older than I." With this Abu Musa advanced and spoke:

"O people! We have considered how best God would bring together the Ummah for their common good. It seems to us that the best solution in this regard is that the two men Ali and Muawiyah should withdraw and that a shura should be formed so that people could choose for themselves who they want as the Khalifah.

"I have agreed that Ali and Muawiyah should withdraw." "You now deal with the situation and appoint as you Khalifah whoever you want."

It was now Amr's turn to make the same announcement. He got up and addressed the people: "O People! Abu Musa has said what you have heard. He has abandoned his friend (Ali). Like him I abandon his friend (Ali) and I confirm my friend Muawiyah (as Khalifah) for he is the heir to the Amir al-Muminin, Uthman, and the one most deserves his position."

Abu Musa was shocked by what he heard. He could not imagine that Amr would commit such treachery even though he was warned about it. Filled with anger and disgust, he lambasted Amr for his deceit and for ruining the chances of peace and reconciliation among Muslims. Amr had thus turned the arbitration process into a farce.

(Video) Companions of the Prophet Series: Abu Musa al Ashari

Abu Musa continued to remain neutral in the conflict which was ended by Ali when he made a treaty with Muawiyah confirming him as the one responsible for governing Syria and Egypt.

Abu Musa himself left for Makkah and spent the rest of his life near the Sacred Mosque. During his life he had remained devoted to the noble Prophet and his righteous successors. During the life of the Prophet, the Prophet had appointed him and Muadh ibn Jabal as governor of Kufah.

Abu Musa was particularly attached to the Quran, reading it constantly, memorizing it, understanding it and putting it into practice. His advice regarding the Quran is full of wisdom: "Follow the Quran," he said, "and do not desire that the Quran should follow you."

In ibadah, he showed a great deal of strength and endurance. On days when the heat was intense and almost unbearable, Abu Musa would be found fasting and he would say: "Perhaps the thirst of the midday heat would prove to be quenching for us on the day of Qiyamah."

As his end drew near, the words which he kept saying were words which he was wont to repeat throughout his life as a believer:

"Allahumma anta-s Salaam Wa minka-s Salaam. "O Lord, You are the Source of Peace And from You comes Peace..."


Who is Abu Musa? ›

Abu Musa Abd Allah ibn Qays al-Ash'ari, better known as Abu Musa al-Ash'ari (Arabic: أبو موسى الأشعري, romanized: Abū Mūsa al-Ash'arī) (died c. 662 or 672) was a companion of Muhammad and an important figure in early Islamic history.

Who are the Ashari scholars? ›

Ash'ari leaders
  • Nizam al-Mulk (d. 485 AH)
  • Yusuf ibn Tashfin (d. 500 AH)
  • 'Abd al-Mu'min ibn 'Ali (d. 558 AH)
  • Saladin (d. 589 AH)
  • Abu Bakr ibn Ayyub (d. 615 AH)
  • Al-Kamil (d. 635 AH)
  • Al-Ashraf Musa (d. 635 AH)
  • Qutuz (d. 658 AH)

Who is the prominent scholars of Al Ashari? ›

Ashʿarī theology or Ashʿarism (/æʃəˈriː/; Arabic: أشعرية: al-ʾAshʿarīyah) is one of the main Sunnī schools of Islamic theology, founded by the Arab Muslim scholar, Shāfiʿī jurist, reformer, and scholastic theologian Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī in the 9th–10th century.

Where is Abu Musa originally from? ›

Persian Gulf

How do I get to Abu Musa? ›

There is no direct connection from Dubai to Abu Musa Island. However, you can take the line 104 bus to Max Metro Bus Stop Landside then take the travel to Abu Musa Island. Alternatively, you can take the line 103 bus to Union Square Bus Station 1 then take the travel to Abu Musa Island.

What is Maturidi in Islam? ›

Māturīdism holds that humans are creatures endowed with reason, which differentiates them from animals. The relationship between people and God differs from that of nature and God; humans are endowed with free-will, but due to God's sovereignty, God creates the acts the humans choose, so humans can perform them.

What is an Ashari DND? ›

The Ashari, known in antiquity as the Gau Drashari, are a multiracial people divided into four tribes: Air, Earth, Water, and Fire. Each of the four tribes live in locations where the Elemental Planes have bled into the Material Plane.

What is meant by Aqeedah? ›

Aqidah (Arabic: عقيدة, romanized: ʿaqīdah (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕɑˈqiːdæ, ʕɑˈqɑːʔɪd]), plural عقائد ʿaqāʾid, also rendered ʿaqīda, aqeeda, etc.) is an Islamic term of Arabic origin that literally means "creed".

Who is Hamza Yusuf wife? ›

What is Hanafi law? ›

The Hanafi School is one of the four major schools of Sunni Islamic legal reasoning and repositories of positive law. It was built upon the teachings of Abu Hanifa (d. 767), a merchant who studied and taught in Kufa, Iraq, and who is reported to have left behind one major work, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar.

What is Muwallad in Islam? ›

The basic meaning of muwallad is a person of mixed ancestry, especially a descendant of one Arab and one non-Arab parent, who grew up under the influence of an Arabic society and were educated within the Islamic culture.

Can you visit Abu Musa Island? ›

Abu Musa has an airport and a pier. There are regular passenger flights from Bandar Abbas to Abu Musa Airport and also passenger boats travel from Bandar Lengeh to this island two to three times a week. In addition to Iranian ships, ships belonging to the UAE transport the Emirati citizens of the island to Sharjah.

Which UAE emirate claimed ownership over the Greater and Lesser Tunbs island? ›

The islands are administered by Iran as part of its Hormozgan Province, but are also claimed by the United Arab Emirates as a territory of the Emirate of Ras al-Khaimah.

Was Abu Hanifa a Maturidi? ›

Abu Hanifa's theological school is claimed to be what would later develop into the Maturidi school of Sunni theology.

Are Ashari Genasi? ›

Genasi are rare in Tal'Dorei, and they are most common among the Ashari—presumably air genasi in Zephrah, earth genasi in Terrah, and fire genasi at Flamereach Outpost—and near other sources of elemental power.

Is Keyleth Ashari? ›

Keyleth was raised in Zephrah as a member of the Air Ashari tribe.

What is Lady Briarwood? ›

Lady Delilah Briarwood is a powerful human wizard from Wildemount, former Archmage of Antiquity for the Cerberus Assembly, and a zealot of Vecna, The Whispered One. As an NPC, she is played by Matthew Mercer.

Who is the imam of Aqeedah? ›

Explanation of the Aqeedah of the Imam, the Reformer,Muhammd Ibn Abdul-wahhaab: DR.

Why is Aqiqah important? ›

- The most important reason for having an Aqiqah ceremony is so that Muslims can say thank you to Allah (God) for the birth of a baby. Parents invite friends and family to celebrate and join them in thanking Allah. They share a special meal together. Friends and family might bring gifts for the baby.

How is Aqiqah performed? ›

An Aqiqah usually takes place on the seventh day after a baby's birth, but is sometimes performed later on. An Aqiqah ceremony is a celebration where the meat from the sacrificed animal is cooked and shared with family, friends and members of the community who are in need.

What age did Hamza Yusuf convert to Islam? ›

His rise to prominence is even more extraordinary given his unusual background. Hamza Yusuf, 42, started life as Mark Hanson, son of two US academics, only converting at 17.

Is Hamza Yusuf married? ›

How old is Humza Yousaf? ›

Is Pakistan a Hanafi? ›

Nearly all Pakistani Sunni Muslims belong to the Hanafi Islamic school of thought, while a small number belong to the Hanbali school.

Is Mufti Menk a Hanafi? ›

Ismail ibn Musa Menk (Arabic: إسماعيل بن موسى منك, romanized: esma'eyl ebn mwsa mnk, IPA: [ɪsmel ɪbən mjusə mɛŋk] ( listen)), also known as Mufti Menk (born 27 June 1975), is a Zimbabwean Islamic scholar.
Ismail ibn Musa Menk.
Grand Mufti of Zimbabwe Ismail Ibn Musa Menk Mufti Menk
26 more rows

Is Hanafi and Sunni the same? ›

Hanafi (light green) is the Sunni school predominant in Turkey, the Western Middle East, Western and Nile river region of Egypt, Central Asia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and parts of Southeast Europe, India, China and Russia.

Is Mozarabic still spoken? ›

Although Mozarabic is today used as an umbrella term for any Romance variety spoken in medieval Al-Andalus—whether in modern day Portugal or Spain—its speakers would not have referred to it that way.

Why did the Berbers convert to Islam? ›

Largely because its teachings became an ideology through which the Berbers justified both their rebellion against the caliphs and their support of rulers who rejected caliphal authority (see below), Islam gained wide appeal and spread rapidly among these fiercely independent peoples.

Where did the Moors come from? ›

The Moors originally came from North Africa. However, once Iberia was captured thousands moved there and left a lasting impact. They spread their technology, crops, and other innovations to the region.

Are Salafis and Wahhabis the same? ›

Many confuse the two while others refer to them as one. Wahhabi is a label given to those who follow the teachings of Muhammad Ibn Abd al-Wahhab. The Wahhabis are always referred to as Salafis, and in fact they prefer to be called as such. As a rule, all Wahhabis are Salafis but not all Salafis are Wahhabis.

Who is Abu Al Hassan? ›

Abū al-Ḥasan al-Ashʿarī, (born 873/874, Basra, Iraq—died c. 935, /936, Baghdad), Muslim Arab theologian noted for having integrated the rationalist methodology of the speculative theologians into the framework of orthodox Islām.


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